Glottalized Resonants: l’, m’, n’, w’, y’


Glottalized Resonants

Besides the glottalized stops and affricates mentioned in the previous units, Hul’q’umi’num’ also has glottalized resonants: l’, m’, n’, w’ and y’. The glottal and the resonant do not really sound like they are made at the same time. Instead they sound like a resonant and a glottal stop made in a sequence. Sometimes the resonant comes first followed by the glottal stop and sometimes the glottal stop comes first followed by the resonant. This depends upon the neighboring sounds in the word, as detailed below.

End of the word

If the glottalized sound appears at the end of the word, you will hear it as a sequence of resonant + glottal stop. The sound is abruptly cut short by the glottal stop. Sometimes you will hear a little puff of air that sounds like a sigh when the glottal stop is released.

‘raven’
‘house’
‘weak’

In contrast, if the word ends in a plain resonant, you will not hear the abrupt ending or the glottal release.

plain                                       glottalized

‘speech’ ‘raven’
‘knee’ ‘eye’
‘father’ ‘weak’
‘to call out’ ‘winter wren’

 

Followed by a consonant

Also, if the glottalized resonant is followed by a consonant, it will be pronounced as a resonant followed by a glottal stop.

‘high ground’
‘to forget’

 

In some words, a plain resonant follows the glottalized resonant, for example:

‘lazy’
‘to hunt’

Between Vowels

If the glottalized resonant is between vowels, you will hear a sequence of consonants. It will sound different depending on the vowel that comes before and after the glottalized resonant. If the vowel before is u you will hear the glottalized resonant as a sequence of resonant + glottal stop, for example in the word mun’u “child”. On the other hand, if some other vowel (a, i, e, ou) comes before the glottalized resonant, you will hear it as glottal stop + resonant, for example, in the word sta’lus “spouse”.

Between Vowels

‘child’
‘to write’
‘leg, foot’
‘spouse’
‘rope, thread’
‘to hang clothes’

A plain consonant in the middle of the word sounds different from a glottalized one because you will hear no interruption.

plain glottalized

‘money’ ‘spouse’
‘walk’ ‘walking’
‘knee’ ‘to hang clothes’
‘no, not’ ‘to go on a trip’
‘limpet, China hat’ ‘to write’

The sounds l’, m’, n’, w’ and y’ do not usually appear at the beginning of the word. One example is m’i “come”.

 

Pronunciation Practice
Listen to the words and repeat them after the teacher.

l’
‘high ground’
‘to forget’
‘cranberry’
‘raven’
‘to play cards’
‘grandparent’
‘maybe, perhaps’

Listening Practice: l and l’
Listen to the words. Do you hear l or l’? Look at the Hul’q’umi’num’ spelling to the right to check your hearing.

sta’lus
mul’qw
hilum
q’a’tul
sluhel’
sq’umul’
xul’um

Pronunciation Practice
Listen to the words and repeat them after the teacher.

m’
‘house’
‘why’
‘go’
‘eye’
‘to be at home’
‘bone’
‘rope’
‘thimbleberry’
‘gooseberry’
‘strong’
‘aunt, uncle’
‘February’
‘band-tailed pigeon’

Listening Practice: m and m’
Listen to the words. Do you hear m or m’? Look at the Hul’q’umi’num’ spelling to the right to check your hearing.

lelum’
lutem
xwi’lum’
hilum
lumutou
t’em’xw
t’uqw’um’
tl’elhum
stth’am’
qtl’um

Pronunciation Practice
Listen to the words and repeat them after the teacher.

n’
‘child’
‘weak’
‘to steal’
‘leg, foot’

Listening Practice: n and n’
Listen to the words. Do you hear n or n’? Look at the Hul’q’umi’num’ spelling to the right to check your hearing.

situn
sxun’u
punut
’uhwiin’

Pronunciation Practice
Listen to the words and repeat them after the teacher.

w’
‘to flee’
‘after, past’
‘to hang clothes’
‘inside’
‘clever, adept’
‘skin’
‘arm, wing’
‘new’
‘beaver’
‘Nanoose’
‘bag lunch’

Listening Practice: w and w’
Listen to the words. Do you hear w or w’? Look at the Hul’q’umi’num’ spelling to the right to check your hearing.

sun’iw’
q’i’wut
stiwun
ts’e’wi’
yul’ew’
sweem
’uwu
lhew’q’um’

Pronunciation Practice
Listen to the words and repeat them after the teacher.

y’
‘good’
‘fire’
‘log’
‘dog’
‘cedar tree’

Listening Practice: y and y’
Listen to the words. Do you hear y or y’? Look at the Hul’q’umi’num’ spelling to the right to check your hearing.

swuy’qe’
qwlhey’shun
yaays
’iyus
siiye’yu
ts’sey’
tsqway

Listening Practice: Glottalization
Listen, then fill in the missing glottalization marks.

swiw’lus
lelum’
hilum
xwi’lum’
sun’iw’
sqwumey’
sq’ewum
sq’umul’
stl’ula’um
t’eluw’
shhwum’nikw
qulum’
Hul’q’umi’num’

Quiz: Listening Practice – glottalized and plain resonants

Glottalized resonants

Listen to the words and select the spelling that you hear.