Unit 4 – Locating Things

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4.1 Dialogue

A: ni’ ’untsu kwthunu poukw? “Where is my book?”
B: ’e’ut ’i ’u tu’i. “Here it is.”

A: ni’ ’untsu kwthunu xul’tun? “Where is my pencil?”
B: sun’iw’ ’u tun’ xthum. “It’s in your box.”

A: ’e’ut ’i ’u tu’i tthun’ kupou. “Your coat is over here.”
B: hay ch q’u. “Thank you.” 

Note: Some Snuneymuhw speakers say ’unuts for “where”.

4.2 Vocabulary: clothing and personal effects

s’ith’um’clothing, dress
stl’pi’th’e’slip, petticoat
suqiwspants, underpants
shtutl’el’uwallet, little purse

4.3 Determiners: tthu and kwthu

Nouns in Hul’q’umi’num’ are preceded by determiners.

Note: Some speakers use the feminine determiners to refer to personal belongings of a female, for example thu s’itth’um “the dress”, lhu poukws “her book”.

4.3a Use the determiner tthu to refer to something that is in view. This is pronounced tu by some speakers (for example in Snuneymuhw).
  • tthu poukw “the book (visible)” 
  • tthu lukli “the key (visible)” 
  • tthu xul’tun “the pen (visible)” 
  • tthu snuhwulh “the car (visible)” 
4.3b kwthu is used to refer to something that is not in view. This is pronounced kwu by some speakers. 
  • kwthu poukw “the book (out of sight)”
  • kwthu lukli “the key (out of sight)”
  • kwthu xul’tun “the pen (out of sight)”
  • kwthu snuhwulh “the car (out of sight)”

4.4 Possessives: -nu and -’un’

The first person singular possessive is -nu “my”.
The second person singular possessive is -’un’ “your”.

4.4a -nu and -’un’ follow the determiner tthu when referring to a  possession that is in view. Notice that tthu and ’un’ contract to tun’.  The possessive forms are pronounced tthunu and tthun’ in Chemainus.
tthu snuhwulh tthunu snuhwulh tthun’ snuhwulh 
the car my car your car 
tthu  kupou tthunu kupoutthun’ kupou 
the coat my coat your coat 
tthu  poukw tthunu poukw tthun’ poukw 
the book my book your book 
tthu  xul’tun tthunu xul’tun tthun’ xul’tun 
the pen my pen your pen 
tthu  pipu tthunu pipu tthun’ pipu 
the paper my paper your paper 
4.4b   -nu and -‘un’ follow the article kwthu when referring to a possession that is not in view. Notice that kwthu and ‘un’ contract to kwthun’.
kwthu kaakwthunu kaakwthun’ kaa
‘the car’‘my car’‘your car’
kwthu kapookwthunu kapookwthun’ kapoo
‘the coat’‘my coat’‘your coat’
kwthu pookwkwthunu pookwkwthun’ pookw
‘the book’‘my book’‘your book’
kwthu xhul’tunkwthunu xhul’tunkwthun’ xhul’tun
‘the pen’‘my pen’‘your pen’
kwthu pipukwthunu pipukwthun’ pipu
‘the paper’‘my paper’‘your paper’

4.5 Pattern practice

4.6 Pattern practice

4.7 -s third person possessive

4.8 Pattern practice

4.9 tst “our”

4.10 Pattern practice

4.11 -un’… ulup “your” plural.

4.12 Pattern practice.

4.13 Substitution drill.

4.14 Vocabulary: locations.

4.15 Expressing locations.

4.15a The verb of location can be followed by the noun phrase being talked about and then the location. The location is preceded by the preposition ’u. 
4.15b The opposite word order is also possiblee the preposition plus noun  phrase expressing location can precede the noun phrase. 

4.16 Pattern practice

4.17 Pattern practice

4.18 Pattern practice. 

4.19 Translation

4.20 Translation

4.21 Answer and translate

4.22 Reading lesson