Negation in Past, Present, and Future

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1. Two Types of Pronouns

subject clitics subject suffixes
lst person sg. tsun -een’
2nd person sg. ch -uhw
1st person pl. tst -ut
2nd person pl. tseep -ulup
3d person -us


Main clause: ni’ tsun kwunut kwthu shuptun.
‘I took the knife.’
Dependent clause: nilh tthu shuptun tthu ni’ kwunuteen’.
‘It’s the knife that I took.’
Negative: ‘uwu tsun niin’ kwunut kwthu shuptun.
‘I didn’t take the knife.’


Q: spaal’ ‘u tu’i? ‘Is this a raven?’
A: ‘uwu spaal’us tthey’ ‘That’s not a raven.’

2. Using Negation in the Past, Present, and Future

1 ‘uwu tsun niin’ t’akw’. ‘I didn’t go home.’ (past)
2 ‘uwu tsun ‘iin’ thuthi. ‘I am not okay.’ (present)
3 ‘uwu tsun tse’ t’ilumeen’. ‘I won’t sing.’ (future)
4 ‘uwu tsun niin’ lumnuhw ‘I didn’t go see it.’ (ni’ + ‘een’ )
5 ‘uwu ch niihw lumnuhw. ‘You didn’t see it.’ (ni’ + uhw)
6 ‘uwu tst niit lumnuhw. ‘We didn’t see it.’ (ni’ + ut)
7 ‘uwu tseep niihw lumnuhw. ‘You (pl) didn’t see it.’ [note: not -ulup]
8 ‘uwu ni’ lumnuhwus lhunu stiwun. ‘My niece didn’t see it.’ (ni’ + us)
9 ‘uwu tsun ‘iin’ say’. ‘I am not ready.’ (‘i + ‘een’ )
10 ‘uwu ch ‘iihw say’. ‘You are not ready.’ (‘i + uhw)
11 ‘uwu tst ‘iit say’. ‘We are not ready.’ (‘i + ut)
12 ‘uwu tseep ‘iihw say’. ‘You aren’t ready.’ [note: not -ulup]
13 ‘uwu ‘iis say’ kwthu John. ‘John is not ready.’ ( ‘i + us)
14 ‘uwu tsun tse’ t’ilumeen’. ‘I will not sing.’
15 ‘uwu ch tse’ t’ilumuhw. ‘You will not sing.’
16 ‘uwu tst tse’ t’ilumut. ‘We will not sing.’
17 ‘uwu tseep tse’ t’ilumuhw. ‘You (pl) will not sing.’
18 ‘uwu tse’ t’ilumus thunu mu’nu. ‘My daughter will not sing.’
19 ‘uwu tsun nem’un’ t’akw’. ‘I’m not going to go home.’
20 ‘uwe ‘u ch nem’uhw huye’? ‘Aren’t you going to leave?’
21 ‘uwu tst nem’ut nuw’ilum. ‘We’re not going inside.’
22 ‘uwe ‘u tseep m’iihw ‘utl’qul? ‘Aren’t you going to come outside?’