Relative Clauses

Relatives formed on the subject:

(1) ni’ ’u ch shtatul’stuhw thu slheni’? + ’i t’it’ulum’ thu slheni’.➙
ni’ ’u ch shtatul’stuhw thu slheni’ [‘i t’it’ulum’]?
‘Do you know the woman who is singing?’
(2) ni’ ’u ch shtatul’stuhw tthu swuy’qe’ [ni’ ts’ewutham’sh]?
‘Do you know the man who helped me?’

Relatives formed on the object:
Use subordinate subject marking for the subject.

(3) ni’ ’u ch lumnuhw lhu kapou ni’ ’iluquteen’?
‘Did you see the coat I bought?’
(4) hakwush tsun tse’ kwthu shuptun ni’ ‘iluqutuhw.
‘I will use the knife that you bought.’
(5) ni’ tst hwayum ’u lhu snuhwulh ni’ thuytut.
‘We sold the canoe that we built.’
(6) ni’ ’u ch le’sh kwthu s’ulhtun ni’ ‘iluqutulup?
‘Did you put away the groceries that you (pl) bought?’
(7) ni’ tsun lumnuhw kwthu stl’i’tl’qulh ni’ ts’ewutus lhun’ stiwun.
‘I saw the child that your niece helped.’

Relatives follow the head noun, or they follow just a determiner.

(8) ni’ ’u ch shtatul’stuhw kwthu shxaatth’ustun ni’ kwunuteen’?
‘Do you know the picture that I took?’
(9) ni’ ’u ch shtatul’stuhw kwthu ni’ kwunuteen’?
‘Do you know the (thing) that I took?’

The determiner matches the missing noun.

(10) ni’ tsun ’uw’ shtatul’stuhw thu ’i t’it’ulum’.
‘I know the (female) who is singing.’
(11) ni’ tsun ’uw’ shtatul’stuhw tthu ’i t’it’ulum’.
‘I know the (male or group of people) who is singing.’